Algae (seaweed)
Seaweed is a loose colloquial term encompassing macroscopic, multicellular, benthic marine algae. The term includes some members of the red, brown and green algae. Seaweeds can also be classified by use (as food, medicine, fertilizer, industrial, etc.). Like all algae, seaweeds are not plants. A seaweed may belong to one of several groups of multicellular algae: the red algae, green algae, and brown algae. As these three groups are not thought to have a common multicellular ancestor, the seaweeds are a polyphyletic group. In addition, some tuft-forming bluegreen algae (Cyanobacteria) are sometimes considered to be seaweeds — "seaweed" is a colloquial term and lacks a formal definition. Two specific environmental requirements dominate seaweed ecology. These are the presence of seawater (or at least brackish water) and the presence of light sufficient to drive photosynthesis. Another common requirement is a firm attachment point. As a result, seaweeds most commonly inhabit the littoral zone and within that zone more frequently on rocky shores than on sand or shingle. Seaweeds occupy a wide range of ecological niches. The highest elevation is only wetted by the tops of sea spray, the lowest is several meters deep. In some areas, littoral seaweeds can extend several miles out to sea. The limiting factor in such cases is sunlight availability. The deepest living seaweeds are some species of red algae. A number of species such as Sargassum have adapted to a fully planktonic niche and are free-floating, depending on gas-filled sacs to maintain an acceptable depth. Others have adapted to live in tidal rock pools. In this habitat seaweeds must withstand rapidly changing temperature and salinity and even occasional drying.
Valonia ventricosa

Valonia ventricosa

Tydemania expeditiones

Tydemania expeditiones

Halimeda copiosa

Halimeda copiosa

Halimeda macroloba

Halimeda macroloba

Halimeda opuntia

Halimeda opuntia

Avrainvillea obscura

Avrainvillea obscura

Caulerpa racemosa

Caulerpa racemosa

Caulerpa serrulata

Caulerpa serrulata

Dictyosphaeria versluysii

Dictyosphaeria versluysii

Sargassum fluitans

Sargassum fluitans

Hydroclathrus clathratus

Hydroclathrus clathratus

Padina australis

Padina australis

Halymenia durvillei

Halymenia durvillei

Gibsmithia hawaiiensis

Gibsmithia hawaiiensis

Tricleocarpa fragilis

Tricleocarpa fragilis

Peyssonnelia sp.

Peyssonnelia sp.